The Moravian ship Irene


I am Betty Green My ancestor is William Dixon who was aboard this ship on the first voyage cleared from London March 1st 1749 and arrived at New York May 12th 1749.(Validation with the Moravian Historical Society Bethlehem, Pennsylvania and my personal research at Fulnck Moravian Archives Fulneck W.Yorkshire England. I have done extensive research and validation on all lines of the William Dixon Family and would like to share with anyone researching any member of direct or related families. Please contact me. )

The entire story of the IRENE is very interesting, therefore I have transcrbed the entire document printed in 1896.

The following information is the complete transcription from "Transactions of The Moravian Historical Society"
Moravian Immigration to Pennsylvania 1734-1767
Vol 5 part 2 printed 1896 compiled by John N.Jordan

Drawing of the Irene

    This drawing of the Irene was by Benjamin Garrison son of Captain Nicholas Garrison. Benjamin Garrison was Captain on one voyage. The only voyage his father was not Captain. I understand the drawing is in the archives Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

    This photo was on a Calendar from Unity Archives Herrnhut, Germany.

    Sent to me by Margaret Connor Volunteer archivist in resident Fulneck Moravian Church, Pudsey W. Yorkshire England. Submitted by Betty Green

Portrait of Captain Nicholas Garrison

    Captain Nicholas Garrison ( 1701-1781) Captain of the Irene, for all but one of her voyages, was born on Staten Island New York USA and encountered the Moravians in the Caribbean. After taking Zinzendorf's travelling party back to Europe from the America in 1743, he was received into the Moravian Church by Zinzendorf. He died in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

    This photo was sent to me by Margaret Connor, Fulneck Moravian Archivist in resident ( volunteer no paid staff there) Photo on Calendar from Unity Archives Herrnhut, Germany. Many thanks to Margaret Connor, and Rev.Dickinson pastor Fulneck Moravian Church Pudsey, W. Yorkshire for all their help with my research over the past 5 years. Submitted by Betty Green


The demand from Pennsylvania for more colonists becoming urgent, in the late Summer of 1744. Zinzendorf, after consulting with Bishop Spangenberg, who had been selected to superintend the affairs of the Church in America, and Captain Garrison, recently returned from captivity at St. Sebastian, decided that a transport vessel should be built in New York, under the supervision of the latter. On October 25,
    Bishop Spangenberg and wife,
    Captain Garrison,
    Abraham and Sarah Reincke,
    Andrew and Dorothea Horn,
    Christian Froelich and
    George Neisser,
on the ship Jacob, arrived at New York. The day following his arrival Captain Garrison called on Timothy Horsfield to whom he had written from Marienborn, concerning the building of the projected vessel, and also on Thomas Noble15) who was to act as financial agent.

After several consultations they decided that a snow should be built, of larger tonnage than heretofore owned by the Church and contracted with John Van Deventer16, a reputable ship-builder of Staten Island, to build the hull, make and set the masts and rig the vessel. The rigging, cables and anchors were to be procured in England, these articles being cheaper than in the Colonies, and it was also contemplated to employ those single brethren at Bethlehem, who were joiners, to do the inside work of the cabin. This latter project, however, fell through, owing to their services being required in the erection of the new Brethren's House, and New York mechanics were substituted.

The following extracts from a letter of Bishop Cammerhoff to Zinzendorf, dated July 2, 1748, give us interesting details regarding the building of the new vessel.

"We have endeavored to conduct the whole project agreeably with your best views. Spangenberg has done the same, and always acted strictly according to your wishes. During Bro. Noble's lifetime there came three simultaneous, contradictory orders to him. First, that he should build the vessel at all cost, and as speedily as possible. Second, that he should build and dispose of it. Third, that he should sell it at once, whether completed or not, reimburse himself if possible, or the balance would be refunded, and he should consult only with Spangenberg. Now Spangenberg listened to none of these discordant representations, but devised Bro. Noble to follow only the postscripts in your letter of September 3, 1745, to Captain Garrison, which stated 'that the work should be continued at leisure.' After Noble's death Timothy Horsfield was authorized to continue the work on the old basis, but no money coming from abroad, and there being none in the hands of Bro. Noble's firm, Spangenberg was compelled to obtain a loan in New York at seven per cent interest. The loan will be repaid by Spangenberg from the bequest made to him in Thomas Noble's will.17 By this means all charges were paid up to the day the vessel was launched. Thus the work was done in 1747 and '48.

" In the summer of 1747 the vessel was caulked, we hearing that she was to be made ready for service. This, however, proved to be a false report. But the following Spring work was recommended, and in April Spangenberg and Dick Schuyler, of Brunswick 18 who had himself built many vessels, consulted with Van Deventer, and decided that the launch should be made on the Spring tide in May.

" At the Naval Office [New York] we have learned the following: First: Every ship must have its owner, in whose name the vessel must be registered. If joint owners, all names must appear. No Society can own a ship or obtain a register for one. Second: Owners of ships must be English born or naturalized citizens. Third: The owner, when he registers, must take an oath or affirm that he is only or true owner, and that no foreigner has direct or indirect ownership in her. We consulted as to whose name the vessel should be registered in, and selected Henry Antes. He accepted and gave us a declaration of trust. . . ."

On May 21, 1748, Bishop Cammerhoff left Bethlehem for Staten Island, where he was met by Bishop Spangenberg, Henry Antes, Timothy Horsfield and Van Deventer, and by them it was agreed, that wind and tide being favorable, the vessel should be launched on the 29th instant, and then be taken to New York, where the joiners were to finish the inside work. Accordingly on Tuesday, May 29th, at eleven o'clock A.M., in the presence of about one thousand spectators, the Irene, as she was christened, was successfully launched, after which a lunch was served to the workmen.19 On the following day while being towed up to the city by a boat with six oarsman, a strong north-west wind drove her too far into the current of the North river, and being in danger of going on the rocks, she was anchored. It was not until Friday morning that she was safely docked at Old Slip, Captain Garrison put in command and Bro. John Brandmuller appointed watchman.20 Zinzendorf having instructed Captain Garrison to load general cargoes for outward voyages, he inserted through his agents the following advertisement in the New York Gazette of June 24th.


The Snow Irene, Nicholas Garrison, Master, will
sail by the 1st of August next at furthest. For freight
or passengers agree with said Master, at the house of
Jarvis Brinckerhoff.

A cargo of coffee, rice and sugar, and a few passengers (not Moravians), having been secured, Bishop Cammerhoff visited the Irene at her dock on August 31st, and kept a farewell Love-feast with her officers and crew. On September 8th, the vessel sailed on her first voyage. Captain Garrison continued to be Master of the Irene until 1755, when his son Nicholas made one voyage, and he was succeeded by Captain Christian Jacobsen.21 It may be here stated, that when the arrival of the Irene was reported in Bethlehem, a number of single brethren were frequently dispatched to New York, to assist in unloading her and to guide the colonists to Pennsylvania, and furthermore, that Claudius Nisbet of the London congregation, a well to do merchant, looked after the interests of the vessel when in an English port.

While the Irene was being built, several small companies of Moravians arrived at Philadelphia and New York, the first to note, in September of 1745, at the first named port were:

    William P. and Hannah Knolton,
    Eve Mary Myer, (a widow,)
    Jarvis Roebuck.

On December 38th, 1746, the snow "John Galley," Captain Crosswaite, arrived off Lewes, Delaware, and the river being filled with ice, landed the following brethren and sisters who continued their journey by land to Bethlehem via Philadelphia:
    Bishop J. C. F. and Anna Cammerhoff,
    Ester Froelich, (wife of Christian Froelich),
    Matthias Gottlieb Gottshalk,
    Vitus and Mary Handrup,
    Judith Hickel, (a widow),
    Sven and Anna Margaret Roseen,
    John and Johanna Wade,
    John Eric Westermann.

In June of 1748, there arrived at New York, Captain Garrison with five brethren to form part of the crew of the Irene, and Bro. Bernhard Adam Grube in charge of the following single brethren:
    J. G. Bitterlich,
    Andrew Brocksch,
    John G. Geitner,
    Joseph Hobsch,
    Gottfried Hoffman,
    Matthew Kunz,
    Paul Paulsen,
    Christian Pfeiffer,
    Godfrey Roemelt,
    Jeremiah Schaaf,
    Christian Schmidt,
    Paul Schneider
    John Seyffert,
    Samuel Wutke.

In September, there also arrived at the same port,
    Baron John, and Countess Benigna von Watteville,
    Anna Rosina Anders,
    -------- Hasselmann,
    Catherine Barbara Keller,
    Elizabeth Lisberger,
    Elizabeth Palmer.

During the nine years the Irene was in the service of the Church, she crossed the Atlantic twenty-four times, sailing between New York and ports in England and Holland, and made one voyage to Greenland. She was always rated a staunch vessel and an excellent sailer, and to the time of her capture and loss, had never met with any serious mishap. The large number of colonists she brought over from Europe for settling the estates of the Church in Pennsylvania, and the fact of her never entering at or clearing from the port of Philadelphia, which was nearer to the Brethren's settlement than New York, caused Governor Hamilton in personal interview with Bishop Spangenberg, to ask for an explanation. "We wish it would suit our convenience to use the port of Philadelphia," stated the Bishop, "but it was found impracticable, for our Captain, who was born near New York and has a large acquaintance with the merchants of that city, can more readily obtain freight there than in Philadelphia; passengers alone not being sufficient. And another serious matter is, that the merchants of Philadelphia own their vessels." The explanation was satisfactory.
In compiling the following accounts of the voyages made by the Irene, I have drawn from theArchives at Bethlehem and the newspapers of Philadelphia and New York between years 1748 and 1758.


The Irene, in command of Captain Nicholas Gassison, Christia Jacobson, mate, and the following crew, Ehrhardt, Schaut, Christiansen, Kemper, Robbins, Okely and Edmonds, sailing from New York for Amsterdam, September 8th, 1748, 22 and arrived at the Texel November 1st. Cleared from London, March 1st, 1749, and arrived at New York May 12th, having on board the "John Nitschmann Colony." With this colony came Christian David, of Herrnhut, Matthew and Rosina Stach, missionaries to Greenland, and their converts Judith Issek, Matthew and John, who had been on a visit to Europe. Christian David during his sojourn in Pennsylvania assisted in the building of "Old Nazareth," and visited other settlements. At a Love-feast given in Bethlehem on June 9th, the Greenlanders appeared in native costume. In the center of the chapel sat the Greenlanders and aside of them two Arawacks, from the Berbice mission in South America; next some thirty converts from five or six Indian tribes, and back of them the "missionaries to the Heathens," then present in Bethlehem. All the hymns sung were in the languages of the nationalities present. The following day the Greenlanders set out for Philadelphia, where they visited the Governor, and from thence proceeded to New York.

A correspondent in Philadelphia writing under date of June 15th, to the New York Gazette and Post Boy states:
"The beginning of this Month three Natives of Greenland, two young Men and a young Woman, converted to the Christian Religion by the Moravian Missionaries in that Country, were on a Visit in this City to the Brethren here. They left their own Country about two years ago in a Ship belonging to the Society (which had carried a ready framed Church to be erected there, Greenland affording no Wood for Building; This vessel sailed from this Port a few days ago for Davis's Straight, with some of the Greenlanders on board) and have visited the Brethren in several Parts of Europe, as England, Holland and Germany. They were clad in Seal Skins with the Hair on, after the manner of their own Country, their Eyes and Hair black, like our Indians, but their Complexion somewhat lighter. The Moravians it seems, have a Mission at Berbice near Surinam, and two Indian Converts from there with these Greenlanders, met lately at Bethlehem in this Province with some of the Delaware Indians, and some of the Mohickons, converts also of the Moravians; and tho' their Native Lands are vastly so remote, as the Latitude 54 and 65 North, yet what they observed of each others Hair, Eyes and Complexion, convinced them that they were all of the same Race. They could find, however, no kind of Similitude in their several Languages."
The "John Nitschmann Colony" was the largest ever brought over on a Moranian transport, and it is also worthy of record, that on July 15th, thirty one couples of the Colony were married by seven clergymen at Bethlehem; which epithalamic event is known to Moravian historians as the "Great Wedding." The following is a roster of the colonists:

    John and Juliana Nitschmann,
    David and Rosina Nitschmann,
    Michael and Anna Helena Haberland,
    Samuel and Rosina Krause,
    Joseph and Verona Mueller,
    Christian Jacob and Anna Margaret Sangerhausen,
    Matthew and Rosina Stach,
    John and Anna Stoll,
    David and Mary Wahnert,
    Christian Frederick and Anna Regina Steinmann,
    Christian David, widower,
    John Schneider, widower,
    Magdalene Elizabeth Reuss, widow.


    Gottlieb Berndt, clothier, Upper Silesia,
    Wenzel Bernhard, baker, Bohemia,
    Joachim Birnbaum, tailor, Brandenburg,
    Peter Drews, ship carpenter, Gluckstadt,
    J. Philip Duerrbaum, Mittelhausen,
    Enert Enersen, joiner, Norway,
    J. Godfrey Engel, tailor, Brandenburg,
    Henry Fritsche, tailor, Silesia,
    Elias Flex, farmer, Upper Silesia,
    Paul Fritsche, carpenter, Moravia,
    J. Leonard Gattermeyer, blacksmith, Bavaria,
    George Gold, mason, Moravia,
    John Peter Hohmann, shoemaker, Brandenburg,
    Daniel Kliest, blacksmith, Frankfort,
    Christopher Kuehnast, shoemaker, Prussia,
    Andrew Krause, weaver, Brandenburg,
    David Kunz, farmer, Moravia,
    Peter Mordick, farmer, Holstein,
    John Bernhard Mueller, clothier, Wurtemberg,
    Michael Muenster, carpenter, Moravia,
    Martin Nitschmann, cutler, Moravia,
    Carl Opitz, shoemaker, Silesia,
    George Pitschmann, weaver, Upper Silesia,
    John George Renner, farmer, Swabia,
    John Christian Richter, joiner,
    Andrew Rillman, stocking-weaver, Saxony,
    Frederick Schlegel, weaver,
    John Schmidt, furrier, Silesia,
    John Christopher Schmidt, fringe and lace maker, Saxony,
    Melchior Schmidt, carpenter, Moravia,
    Melchior Schmidt, weaver, Moravia,
    Martin Schneider, mason, Moravia,
    Carl Schultze, mason, Posen,
    Godfrey Schultze, farmer, Lower Silesia,
    John Schweisshaupt, stocking-weaver, Wurtemberg,
    Andrew Seiffert, carpenter, Bohemia,
    Thomas Stach, book binder, Moravia,
    Rudolph Straehle, mason, Wurtemberg,
    David Tanneberger, joiner, Upper Silesia,
    John Nicholas Weinland, farmer.


    John ------, Matthew -------, Judith -------.


    Rosina Arndt,
    Rosina Barbara Arnold,
    Margaret Ballenhorst,
    Anna Rosina Beyer,
    Maria Beyer,
    Elizabeth Bieg,
    Catherine Binder,
    Rosina Dietz,
    Maria Dominick,
    Sophia Margaret Dressler,
    Margaret Drews,
    Charlotte Eis,
    Maria Elizabeth Engler,
    Catherine Fichte,
    Catherine Fischer,
    Roina Galle,
    Margaret Groszer,
    Helena Grundberg,
    Juliana Haberland,
    Anna Maria Hammer,
    Rosina Haus,
    Margaret Heindel,
    Maria Barbara Hendel,
    Anna Rosina Kerner,
    Anna Maria Koffler,
    Anna Maria Krause,
    Barbara Krause,
    Martha Maans,
    Magdalena Meyerhoff,
    Magdalena Mingo (negress),
    Anna Maria Nitsche,
    Dorothea Nuernberg,
    Helena Nusz,
    Elizabeth Oertel,
    Maria Elizabeth Opitz,
    Catherine Paulsen,
    Anna Ramsburger,
    Margaret Catherine Rebstock,
    Anna Catherine Renner,
    Anna Maria Roth,
    Juliana Seidel,
    Anna Maria Schmatter,
    Rosina Schuling,
    Magdalena Schwartz,
    Dorothea Uhlmann,
    Divert Vogt,
    Susanna Weicht,
    Catherine Wentzel.


Loading lumber and other material for the mission in Greenland, the Irene sailed from Staten Island June 21, 1748, with Christian David, the missionary Stach and wife and their three converts, and arrived at New Herrnhut, Greenland, on July 30. She returned to New York August 29.

The early summer of 1749 the following single brethren from Yorkshire, England, arrived at Bethlehem for the purpose of conducting the manufacture of woolens:

(note by Betty Green, even though these 4 names are listed here the note does state the arrived early summer 1749. From William Dixon's Memoir and information from the archives Fulneck Moravian Church W. Yorkshire England his date of arrival was May 12, 1749.Therefore he and these other 3 men would have been on the first voyage from London to New York)


On October 15, 1749, The Irene sailed from New York, among her passengers being Bishop Spangenberg, David Nitschmann and von Watteville, and arrived at London November 21, making the quick passage, as her log states, of only thirty days from land to land." She sailed from Dover May 11th, 1750, and arrived at New York on June 22, making a remarkable westward passage with the "Henry Jorde Colony" on board. The following are the names of the colonists:

    John Andrew Albrecht,
    Marcus Balffs,
    George Baumgarten,
    Henry Bergmann,
    John Andrew Borhek,
    Zacharias Eckhard,
    Walter Ernst,
    Just Erd,
    Claus Euler,
    Henry Feldhausen,
    J. Christopher Feldhausen,
    Godfrey Fockel, [= Gottlieb Fockel?]
    John Godfrey Fockel,
    Samuel Fockel,
    Henry Friz,
    Andrew Freyhube,
    Lucas Fuss,
    Christian Giersch,
    John George Groen,
    Abraham Hasselberg,
    Balthaser Hege,
    Jacob Heydecker,
    John Henry Herbst,
    Samuel Herr,
    Jacob Herrman,
    John Gottlob Hoffman,
    Thomas Hoffman,
    Christian Henry Hoepfner,
    Eric Ingebretsen,
    Andrew Jaencke,
    John Theobold Kornmann,
    John Gottlieb Lange,
    John Samuel Lauck,
    Henry Lindenmeyer,
    Christian Henry Loether,
    Carl Ludwig,
    Jacob Lung,
    John George Masner,
    Christopher Matthiesen,
    Nichols Matthiesen,
    Christopher Merkly,
    Jacob Meyer,
    John Stephen Meyer,
    Philip Meyer,
    John Muensch,
    Melchior Muenster,
    John Jacob Nagle,
    ------- Neilhock,
    John Michael Odenwald,
    John Matthew Otto,
    John Ortlieb,
    Peter J. Pell,
    Hans Peterson,
    Frederick Jacob Pfeil,
    John Michael Pitzman,
    Jacob Priessing,
    John Henry Richling,
    John Richter,
    Godfrey Roesler,
    Daniel Ruenger,
    Michael Sauter,
    Paul Jansen Sherbeck,
    Henry Schoen,
    George Schweiger,
    Christian Schwartz,
    Gottfried Schwartz,
    Abraham Strauss,
    John Daniel Sydrich,
    ------- Theodorus,
    John Andrew Wagenseil,
    Andrew Weber.


    Christopher Feldhausen,
    John Christian Haensel,
    Paul Hennig,
    Henry Gerstberger,
    Andrew Gross,
    John Henry Merck,
    Martin Presser,
    Paul Christian Stauber,
    John Thomas,
    London (a negro from London),
    Frederick Emmanuel Herrman,
    Susan Maria Herrman,
    Francis Steup,
    Sophia Steup.

In July, thirty of these single brethern were sent up to Christian's Springs, in charge of John Gottlob Hoffman.


The Irene left her dock in New York, August 28, 1750, with Nathaniel Seigel, David Zeisberger and other passengers, and Captain Garrison was instructed to put in at some port in Nova Scotia, the Government of which was inviting settlers to the Province, "to spy out suitable lands for Brethren's settlements." During a very severe storm she lost both topmasts and narrowly escaped from foundering. On her return voyage she sailed from Dover and arrived at New York September 26, 1751, with Nathaniel Seidel and the following single and married brethren:
    Joachim and Elizabeth Busse,
    John Christian Christiansen,
    John Jacob Schmick,
    David Zeisberger,
    John Michael and Gertrude Graff.


On November 22, 1751, the Irene sailed from New York with John Nitschmann, (23) John C. Pyrlaeus and wife, Henry Jorde and six passengers. She arrived at New York from Dover, May 17, 1752. bringing the following brethren and sisters:

    Francis and Anna Catharine Boehler,
    Andrew Anton and Anna Maria Lawatsch,
    Rosina Pfohl, a widow, Jacob Rogers, a widower,
    Jacob Wahnert, a widower,
    Margaret Wernhamer, single woman, nurse, a matron.

About a month after the sailing of the Irene upon her fifth voyage, there arrived at New York unexpectedly, Bishop Spangenberg with:
    Philip Christian Bader,
    Nicholas Henry Eberhardt,
    Matthew and Anna Maria Hehl,
    Matthew Kremser,
    Carl Godfrey Rundt,
    Henrietta Peterman.

The New York Gazette and Post Boy frequently contains the advertisements of Henry Van Vleck, Samuel Stillwell, Rudolphus Van Dyck and other merchants, offering for sale merchandise imported on the Irene, and Captain Garrison, "Holland bricks cheap for ready money."


The Irene sailed from New York July 6,1752, and from London on her return September 30, and arrived at her dock November 20, having on board the following single sisters, in charge of Sister Anna Johanna:

    Anna Maria Beyer,
    Maria Catherine Dietz,
    Margaret Ebermeyer,
    Dorothea Gaupp,
    Catherine Gerhardt,
    Inger Heyd,
    Margaret Catherine Klingelstein,
    Anna Mann,
    Agnes Meyer,
    Johanna Dorothea Miller (wife of Henry Miller, the printer),
    John Toeltschig,
    Christina Morhardt,
    Regina Neuman,
    Linet Reddenberg,
    Catherine Ruch,
    Felicitas Schuster,
    Margaret Seidner,
    Anna Sperbach,
    Juliana Warkler,
    -------- Schultz, a widow,
    David Wahnert.


On April 5, 1753, the Irene sailed from New York, and from London on her return, June13, and was docked September 9. Her passengers were:
    Peter and Elizabeth Boehler,
    Jacob and Elizabeth Till
    , Susan and Rebecca Till,
    George Stephen and Susan Watson,
and a colony of twenty-three single brethren in charge of Gottlob Koenigsdorfer, from the congregations at Barby, London, Herrnhut, Hennersdorf and Zeyst.

    Ludolph Gottlieb Backhof, student Luneberg,
    Christopher Henry Baehrmeyer, writer, Brandenburg,
    Frederick Beyer, carpenter, Silesia,
    Ludwig Christian Daehne, tailor, Weringerode,
    Jacob Eyerle, blacksmith, Wurtemberg,
    Geoege Christian Fabricius, student, Denmark,
    Christian Frederick Toellner, tailor, Pomerania,
    Jacob Friis, student, Denmark,
    George Wenzeslaus Golkowsky, surveyor, Silesia,
    Joseph Haberland, mason, Moravia,
    Jacob Herr, mason, Wurtemberg,
    Samuel Hunt, cloth maker, Yorkshire, England,
    Jacob Jurgensen, purse maker, Denmark,
    Hans Martin Kalberlahn,, surgeon, Dronthheim,
    Henry Krause, butcher, Silesia,
    Otto Christian Krogstrup, student, Denmark,
    Joseph Lemmert, tanner, Brisgn,
    Albrecht L. Rusmeyer, student, Luneberg,
    George Soelle, student, Denmark,
    Christian Wedsted, carpenter, Denmark,
    Peter Weicht, farmer, Silesia,
    Peter Worbass, carpenter, Denmark,
    Curtius Frederick Ziegler, student, Pomerania.

David and Rosina Wahnert were steward and stewardess of the colony, to whose care was given the portrait of Christian Renatus von Zinzendorf now in the archives at Bethlehem. It is also worthy of mention, that the first steam engine used in America was brought over on this voyage, and taken to the copper mine near the present town of Belleville, New Jersey.


On November 3, 1753, the Irene sailed from New York, and from Gravesend March 15, 1754, reaching her dock April 15. This is the quickest western voyage she ever made, "being but three Sundays at sea." When within five days of New York, Bishop Spangenberg ascertained the sense of the crew, to wit, of Nicholas Garrison Jr., Benjamin Garrison, William Okely, Just Jansen, William Edmonds, Peter Brink, William Angel and Christian Jacobsen, in reference to the Act of Parliament, George II, being impressed thereto, in view of impressment of sailors, which excepted at New York. Fortunately the Moravian sailors escaped the rigors of the Act. The following is a list of her passengers and colonists by choir-classification:


    A. G. Spangenberg,
    David Natschmann, Senr.,
    Francis Christian Lembke,
    Andrew Schoute


    C. T. Benzien,
    P. D. Bryzelius,
    John Ettwein,
    Nicholas Garrison (master),
    J. Valentine Haidt,
    David Heckewelder,
    D. Schmidt,
    D. Wahnert.


    Anna Maria Benzien,
    Regina Dorothea Bryzelius,
    Joanetta Maria Ettwein,
    Catherine Haidt,
    Regina Heckewelder,
    Rosina Wahnert,
    Mary Ann Garrison.


    Mary Evans,
    ------ Eurichew,
    ------ Wyke.


    William Angel,
    Peter Brink,
    William Edmonds,
    Charles Frederick,
    Benjamin Garrison,
    ------ Lighton,
    Christian Jacobsen,
    ------ Jost,
    William Okely,
    Nicholas Garrison, Jr.,
    Andrew Hoeger.


    John Heckewelder,
    David Heckewelder,
    Christian Heckewelder.


    Anna Benigna Benzien,
    Hannah Bryzelius,
    Mary Bryzelius
    Mary Heckewelder.


    Christel Benzien,
    Renatus Bryzelius,
    Christel Ettwein.


The Irene sailed from New York May 29, 1754, and from London September 22, arriving at New York November 16, having on board a colony of single men in charge of Gottlieb Pezold:

    Nicholas Anspach, farmer, Palatinate,
    Matthew Bacher, shoemaker, Salzburg,
    Lorenz Bagge, carpenter, Holstein,
    Joseph Bulitschek, carpenter, Bohemia,
    Jens Colkier, carpenter, Jutland,
    Adam Cramer, tailor,
    Melchior Coumad, carpenter, Moravia,
    Detlof Delfs, shoemaker, Holstein,
    Franz Christopher Diemer, baker,
    Carl J. Dreyspring, tailor, Wurtemberg,
    Gottfried Dust, potter, Silesia,
    Jacob Ernst, baker, Switzerland,
    Casper Fischer, miller, Hildburghausen,
    August Henry Francke, tailor, Wetteravia,
    Christian Freible, carpenter,
    Hans Nicholas Funk, farmer, Lobenstein,
    Joseph Giers, miller, Moravia,
    John Henry Grunewald, farmer, Mecklenburg,
    Matthias, Gimmele, tailor,
    John Adam Hassfeldt, saddler, Ebersfeld,
    Joseph Huepsch, shepherd, Moravia,
    John Jag, Moravia,
    Samuel John Malay, Ceylon,
    John Klein, saddler, Darmstadt,
    Christopher Kloetz, shoemaker, Wollmirstadt,
    Adam Koffler, linen weaver,
    John George Kriegbaum, shoemaker, Anspach,
    Christopher Kuershner, shoemaker,
    David Kunz, carpenter, Moravia,
    John Henry Lenzner, bookbinder, Beyreuth,
    Michael Linstroem, linen weaver,
    John Matthew Miksch, gardener, Saxony,
    Henry George Meisser, shoemaker,
    Lorenz Nielson, carpenter, Holstein,
    Carl Ollendorf, tailor, Brandenburg,
    Hans Petersen,
    Philip Henry Ring, baker, Elsace,
    Martin Rohleder, farmer, Moravia,
    Samuel Saxon, clothier, England,
    Martin Schenk, mason, Moravia,
    George Schindler, carpenter, Moravia,
    Peter Sproh, mason, Courland,
    Anton Stiemer, mason, Prussia,
    Christian Stiemer, shoemaker, Prussia,
    John George Stark, stocking weaver,
    John Stettner, tailor, Anspach,
    Edward Thorp, shoemaker, England,
    Carl Weinecke, shoemaker,
    Joseph Willy, clothier, England,
    Jens Wittenberg, skinner, Norway,
    John Wuertele, shoemaker, Wurtemberg,
    Henry Zillman, tailor, Brandenburg,
    Christian Frederick Post, widower, Indian missionary.

It was while the Irene was in port that the project to transport merchandise by water between Bethlehem and the capital of the Province was unsuccessfully attempted, the details of which I have given in my paper, "The Ferry and Boat Yard of Bethlehem."


In charge of Nicholas Garrison Jr., as Master, the Irene sailed from New York, February 4th, 1755, and arrived from London August 11th.


The Irene Christian Jacobsen, Master, sailed from New York, September 28th, 1755, from England April 6th, 1756, and arrived at New York, June 2nd with fourteen single brethren, in charge of John Henry Seidel:

    John Bartholomew Boninghausen,
    Joachim Busse,
    James Hall,
    Casper George Hellerman,
    Elert Koortsen,
    George Ernst Mentzinger,
    John Mueller,
    Henry Ollringshaw,
    John Michael Rippel,
    John Roth,
    Michael Ruch,
    William Schmaling,
    George Seneff,
    Hans Jacob Schmidt.


On July 1st, 1756, the Irene sailed from New York, and on September 23rd, from London, arriving at New York December 12th, with the following passengers:

    Peter Boehler,
    William Boehler,
    Christian Bohle,
    Adolph Eckesparre,
    Philip Christian Reiter.


The Irene sailed from New York, March 17th 1757 --- the only vessel to leave the port after the embargo was laid with Joseph Locker and George Ernst Mentzinger, passengers for London. Sailing from the latter port September 15th, she arrived at New York after passage of fifteen weeks.


On November 20th, 1757, the Irene sailed from New York on her last voyage. When ten days out, she was captured by a French privateer, and proved a total loss to the church.24 The news of her capture and wreck did not reach Bethlehem until May 19th, 1758. The following interesting account of her capture was prepared by Andrew Schoute, for some years her mate.25

"On the 20th of November we cleared Sandy Hook. At noon of the 29th, when in Latitude 36 degree, 35 minutes and Longitude 60 degree, we sighted a vessel to the north bearing down on us and soon after hoisting the English flag. Mistrusting the stranger, we showed no colors, but crowded on all sails in hope of effecting our escape. Hereupon the stranger ran up the French flag. It was now a trail of speed, in the course of which the Irene gave proof of her excellent sailing qualities, but at eleven o'clock at night our storm-sails parted. The privateer now gained rapidly upon us, and as she did so fired shot after shot. I counted thirty, not including the volleys from small arms. It being bright moonlight and no further hope of escape in our disabled condition, we backed our sails, and at midnight our ill-fated vessel was boarded Latitude 36 degree, Long. 62 degree. Capt. Jacobsen and two of the crew were immediately transferred on board the privateer, which proved to be the"Margaret" from Louisburg, mounting eight guns and eight swivels and manned by fifty men; and the Irene was given in charge of a prize crew, consisting of a captain, lieutenant and twelve sailors. At day-break we were ordered on deck and were stripped and plundered of all we had on our person. On December 6th, the privateer came longside and after enquiring about the prisoners, the captain ordered our prize officer to take the "Irene" into Louisburg, at the same time he transferred five of our members on board his own vessel.

"For upwards of four weeks we cruised about, I may say at the mercy of the wind and waves, for the weather was foul and the prize crew inexperienced in seamanship. Occasionally they would call on us to assist in navigating the vessel. Meanwhile the supply of provisions ran short, so that our daily allowance was a quart of water and three biscuits. In all this time of harrassing uncertainty, we did not fail to meet in the evenings for singing, and on Saturday for praying and Litany.

"One day our boatswain came to me and proposed that we should make an attempt to overpower our captors, cut down those who should resist, secure the others and then run the Irene into the nearest English port. To this I would not consent, but instead encouraged him to place his trust in God. Thus the days slowly passed, until on the morning of January 12, 1758, the fog raising, we discovered an island close by the vessel, whereupon we put out to sea. At noon the French crew were called into the cabin where Mass was celebrated, after which they decided to make for the land again. When I heard of this, I went to the captain and pilot, and tried to dissuade them from so unseamanlike a course in foggy weather, and told them they would certainly loose the vessel. As they would not listen to my protest, I prepared for the worst. At 2 P.M. breakers were reported ahead and very soon we were among them and struck a rock. The second time we struck, the rudder and part of the keel were broken off, and three feet of water was reported in the hold. The Frenchmen became so demoralized that I ordered the boat launched, into which we all got (twenty-two in number) and rowed for the shore, which we reached in safety but wet to the skin. On landing the French captain fell upon my neck, kissed and thanked me for saving the lives of all. We next entered the woods, made a fire, and on returning to the boat for the provisions, found that it had drifted out to sea. The next morning only the masts of he Irene were to be seen above the water. We marched along the coast and by evening reached some fishermen's huts, where we obtained food and passed the night. On the 14th we reached St Pierre, a trading-fort garrisoned by sixty soldiers, where we were kindly treated. Being quite feeble, the commandant of the post allowed me to remain, but my companions under escort on the morning of the 16th, set out for Louisburg. At noon on the 28th, the escort returned, and I learned that my companions and Capt. Jacobsen (who had arrived on the 21st) were put on board a frigate bound for Brest.

"After dinner, February 1st, a Capt. Gray, some sailors from Boston and myself, under escort and with provisions for eight days, set out for Louisburg, twenty-five leagues distant. The country through which we passed was almost a barren waste, and frequently we had to wade through water and snow knee deep. On the 5th, we reached our destination and we were taken before the Governor, who committed us to the common prison, where we were allowed daily one pound of bread and a quarter pound of pork, with sometimes bad Spruce beer."

Here Bro. Schoute was alternately in hopital and in prison until the 10th of May, when a M. Castyn (Castine) interpreter to the English prisoners, employed him as gardener. At this time there were eight men-of-war (64 to 74 gun ships), four frigates and transports laden with men and munitions of war collected in the harbor, some of them recently arrived for protection of the city, against a demonstration it was known the English designed to make.

On the 1st of June, General Amherst's expedition hove in sight from Halifax. It consisted of twenty ships of the line and eight frigates carrying 14,000 men.

"All the English prisoners in the city," continues Bro. Schoute in his narrative, "were ordered on board the man-of-war and confined below decks under guard. One week later the English effected a landing, and four days thereafter, succeeded in dislodging the French from their outworks, compelling them to retreat within their fortifications. On the 14th, cannonading was opened simultaneously between five French vessels and the Island battery, and an English man-of-war and the Light-house battery. The French vessels were compelled to fall back on the 16th, under cover of the fort. The ship on board of which I was, being in range was riddled by three hundred shot. One night when I was asleep behind a barrel of flour in the hold, a ball came crashing through the hull and buried itself in the barrel !

"On the 16th, the English opened a general cannonade against the city, which was sustained with unremitting for two days. Then they opened their mortars upon the fleet, pouring into the vessels a fiery hail which soon wrapped three of them in flames. Compelled to abandon our burning ship (a 64) all hands took to the boats. It was a desperate alternative, as the way of escape to the shore as commanded by the English batteries. On landing, we prisoners were immediately put in confinement. Thus another week passed, when on the 26th of July, the cannonading ceased and news was brought to us, that the garrison had capitulated. The next day we were released."

It was not until Sept. 2d that Bro. Schoute was able to obtain a passage to New York, where he arrived on the 19th, and at Bethlehem ten days later.

Capt. Jacobsen and his sailors arrived at Brest, (Feby 14th), where they were imprisoned with the exception of Henry Ollringshaw, who being very ill was sent to a hospital where he died. Five days later they were released on parole and went to Dinant, where with five English sea-captains, they rented rooms and boarded themselves on their allowance of 18 sous per day. Here they resided until exchanged about nine months later.

(15) Thomas Noble, a prominent merchant of New York, and originally a member of the Presbyterian Church, became acquainted with the Moravians through Bishop Spangenberg, and when Christian Henry Rauch was dispatched to New York he became a guest at his house. In 1741, Mr. Noble and his wife united with the Society organized by Peter Bohler, which for two years met at his house. He was selected as one of its lay Elders, and to his death, in 1746, was an active promoter of the Moravian movement in America. His children were educated in the Church schools at Mount Frederick and Bethlehem, and with the exception of one daughter, Mary, who married Benjamin, a son of Captain Garrison, died in their youth.

(16) John Van Deventer, whose grandfather was one of the first settlers of New Utrecht, Long Island, was born in 1697, and at the date of this narrative, with his wife Lysbet, is registered as among the members of the Staten Island congregation. His ship yard was located near where Port Richmond now stands, and the point of land near by, until 1770, was called Van Deventer's Point. He died October 16, 1758, and two days later was buried by Rev. Thomas Yarrell. "The large company at the grave, comprising Assemblymen, Judges, Justices and friends, listening with attention to the remarks on 'He hath abolished death and brought light through ye Gospel.'"

(17) Bishop Spangenberg received 1082 pounds from the estate of Thomas Noble, of which he donated 823.5 pounds, Pennsylvania currency, towards building the vessel.

(18) Dirk Schuyler, an Alderman of New Brunswick, New Jersey, was long the friend of Bishop Spangenberg, and his house was the usual stopping place for the Moravians journeying between Bethlehem and New York. His name appears on the registers of persons attached to the Church in the vicinity of New York.

(19) In honor f this event Bishop Spangenberg presented to Lysbet Van Deventer, the wife of the builder, 2. 2. 1. pounds with which to purchase a new gown.

(20) The Irene was registered at the New York Custom House at a cost of 2. 2. Pounds, and is described as being "plantation built," eighty tons burthen, mounted with two guns and navigated by nine men." Owing to her being "plantation built" i.e. built in the colonies, it was not required that her master in his bond should give her dimensions, hence we can not give them. A plan of the vessel is preserved in the Archives at Bethlehem, and also a book of sailing directions belonging to her.

(21) Christian Jacobsen, mariner, was born in Denmark, in February of 1726. In 1766, he married the widow Ann Van Deventer, by whom he had one son. After leaving the sea he retired to his farm on Staten Island, and in April of 1776, he was chairman of the Richmond County Committee for the organization of four companies of militia for the Continental service. At two o'clock on th morning of January 20th, 1782, he was shot by some British soldiers who came to rob him, and died a few hours afterwards. His remains were interned in the Van Deventer family vault.

(22) Abraham Boemper on July 15,1748, paid 2.2.pounds for register of the Irene at the Custom House.

(23) His wife died at Bethlehem, February 21, 1751, and her grave, in the center walk of the cemetery, has in recent years has been marked by a new stone.

(24) The trustees of the Irene at the time of her loss were: Henry Van Vleck, of New York; Nicholas Garrison, Senr., of Bethlehem; Charles Metcalf, of London, and Timothy Horsfield, of Bethlehem. By these her accounts were finally settled May 31st, 1763 and disappear from the books.

(25) Andrew Schoute was born at Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1700. Early in life he manifested a fondness for adventure, impelled by which he led a roving life untill 1731, when he settled in Amsterdam. But here his associates provided ruinous to him, and he resolved to follow the sea as the best means for retrieving his fortunes. Accordingly he enlisted in the Dutch Navy, and sailed n a man-of-war for the Mediterraneans. While in this service he was promoted to mate and first pilot. As the expiration of his term of enlistment, in 1737, he entered the Duch East India Company service. Four years later we find him in the Russian Navy, and in 1742, pilot of the Admiral's ship. While in winter quarters at Reval, Schoute became acquainted with the Moravians, was impressed by their preaching, abandoned the sea, and in 1746, united with them at Herrnhaag. As mate of the Irene he continued until impaired health necessitated him to resign in the summer of 1754. Desirous of spending the remainder of his days in Europe, he took passage on the Irene and made the trying experience related. He died at Bethlehem in 1763.

Jarvis Family and Other Relatives

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